Manufacturing has been undergoing a significant digital transformation in recent years with the adoption of advanced Internet of Things (IoT) technology such as robotics and automation. These technologies have brought increased efficiency and productivity to the manufacturing processes. They have also introduced new cybersecurity risks that pose serious threats to the industry.
According to a Deloitte report, the manufacturing industry is one of the most targeted industries for cyber attacks, with 39 percent of manufacturing companies experiencing a cybersecurity incident in the past year. To address these challenges, compliance with robust cybersecurity standards, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework (NIST CSF), has become crucial for the manufacturing industry to protect its critical infrastructure in the digital age.
The following is a step-by-step guide on how to navigate the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.
Assess Current Cybersecurity Posture
The first step is to assess the current cybersecurity posture of the manufacturing company. This involves identifying and documenting the critical assets, systems, and data that need protection, and evaluating the existing cybersecurity controls and practices in place. This entails:
- Identifying critical assets, systems, and data.
- Evaluating existing cybersecurity controls and practices.
- Identifying vulnerabilities and areas for improvement.
- Assessing employee awareness and training.
- Reviewing incident response plans.
- Considering regulatory compliance requirements.
- Reviewing third-party relationships.
Identify and Prioritize Risks
Manufacturers should identify and prioritize the cybersecurity risks that are most relevant to their operations. Start by identifying the risks within the company. You can do this by evaluating the likelihood and impact of different threats, such as ransomware attacks, insider threats, or supply chain attacks. This allows you to identify and assess your risk for a cyber breach and minimize the fallout.
Next, prioritize each risk by threat level and importance. Prioritizing the risks involves considering the potential consequences of a successful cyber attack on critical systems or data. It is fundamental for manufacturers to prioritize risks based on their impact on the business and align them with their overall risk management strategy.
Map Existing Posture to CSF Categories
The NIST CSF contains categories and subcategories within the framework that are particularly applicable to the manufacturing industry. Manufacturers should map their existing cybersecurity controls and practices to these categories to identify any gaps or areas that need improvement.
For example, in the Identify category, ensure you have a complete inventory of all your assets, including OT systems, and have a clear understanding of cybersecurity risks and vulnerabilities. Here are some key categories and subcategories of focus for manufacturing:
- Identify. This category focuses on understanding and managing cybersecurity risks associated with manufacturing processes, systems and assets. It includes subcategories such as asset management and risk assessment.
- Detect. This category focuses on detecting cybersecurity events in a timely manner to minimize potential damages. It includes subcategories such as: anomaly detection, event logging and security continuous monitoring in manufacturing systems for potential threats.
- Respond. This category focuses on developing and implementing response plans to manage cybersecurity incidents effectively. It includes subcategories such as response planning and communication channels for incident response.
- Recover. This category focuses on restoring normal operations after a cybersecurity incident and conducting post-incident activities. It includes subcategories such as recovery planning and incorporating improvements into recovery plans.
Based on the risk assessment and NIST CSF mapping, develop a roadmap that outlines the steps and timeline for achieving compliance with the framework. Align this roadmap with the company's overall cybersecurity strategy, budgetary considerations, and operational priorities. It should include specific actions, responsible parties, and milestones to track progress.
Implementation, Monitoring and Documentation
The next step is implementing cybersecurity controls with the roadmap to achieve NIST Cybersecurity Framework compliance. Effective cybersecurity controls and practices include network segmentation, access controls, encryption, and pentesting tools. It is also crucial for manufacturers to develop policies, procedures, and training programs to increase cybersecurity awareness and best practices among employees and contractors. Remember to regularly review and update your company’s cybersecurity controls to address emerging threats and vulnerabilities.
Monitoring and measuring your activities is key to maintaining NIST Cybersecurity Framework compliance. Manufacturers should establish processes to monitor the effectiveness of their cybersecurity controls, measure progress against the roadmap, and track cybersecurity incidents and responses. This data can provide valuable insights for making informed decisions on further improvements and adjustments to the cybersecurity posture.
Documentation and communication are critical aspects of NIST CSF compliance. Manufacturers should maintain detailed records of their cybersecurity controls, policies, procedures, and incident response plans. These records can serve as evidence of compliance and help demonstrate due diligence in case of audits or regulatory inquiries.
It is also essential to communicate cybersecurity policies, practices, and expectations to employees, suppliers, and other stakeholders to ensure a consistent and unified approach to cybersecurity across the organization.
Compliance with the NIST Cybersecurity Framework has become crucial for manufacturing. This framework helps protect critical assets, ensures compliance with regulations and standards, mitigates cyber risks, enhances business resilience, and promotes a unified approach to cybersecurity across the organization. By implementing the NIST CSF, manufacturers can strengthen their cybersecurity posture and safeguard their critical infrastructure in the digital age.